POLISH HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL


966-1386 - Poland during the rule of the Piast dynasty

966 - Baptism of Poland, beginning of the Polish state; Mieszko I - the first historical ruler of Poland; Bolesław I the Brave - the first king of Poland, Casimir III the Great - the last king from the Piast dynasty

1386-1572 - Poland during the reign of the Jagiellonian dynasty

The Polish Union with Lithuania, and with time the merger of Poland and Lithuania into one united kingdom
Władysław II Jagiełło, Zygmunt I Stary, Zygmunt II August - the greatest rulers of this period

1572-1795 - Poland during the time of election kings (chosen by the nobility)

Stefan Batory, Zygmunt III Waza, Jan III Sobieski, Stanisław August Poniatowski - the most important rulers of this period
May 3, 1791 - adoption of the Constitution of May 3, the first in Europe, and the second in the world (currently on May 3, a public holiday is celebrated)

1795-1918 - Poland under 123 partitions disappears from the map of Europe

Kosciuszko Insurrection, Napoleonic Wars, November Uprising, Spring of Nations, January Uprising - many unsuccessful attempts to regain independence, but important for maintaining national identity
November 11, 1918 - regaining independence (now Poland's independence day)

Tadeusz Kościuszko, Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, Adam Czartoryski, Romuald Traugutt, Wojciech Drzymała - the most important heroes of this period
 

1918-1939 - Second Polish Republic

Rebuilding the country after more than a hundred years of captivity, struggle to regain former borders
Józef Piłsudski, Roman Dmowski, Ignacy Paderewski, Wincenty Witos - the most important politicians of this period

1939-1945 Poland under occupation during World War II

Defense of Westerplatte, Battle of the Bzura, Warsaw Uprising - the most important events of this period
Escape of the Polish government to London, extermination camps on Polish territory
Władysław Sikorski, Władysław Anders - the most important heroes of this period

1945-1989 - Poland dependent on the communist USSR

October 1956, December 1970, August 1980 - the most important protests against communist authorities
Election of a Pole as Pope, Insurrection of Solidarity, Martial Law, Round Table - the most important events that contributed to the fall of communism in Poland
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, Pope John Paul II, Lech Wałęsa - the most important heroes of this period

1989 until now - III Rzeczpospolita

Poland's accession to NATO, Poland's accession to the European Union - the most important events of this period